DAVID MALAN: All right this is CS50 and this is the end of week one. So I'd like to introduce my former advisee, Andel Duff, who not only makes iPhone 5 stands, as well as this lectern, he also makes cars. ANSEL DUFF: How's it going, everybody? I just want to tell you a little bit about Formula SAE, of which I am the captain. It's an MIT team. I just want to tell you guys a little bit about it and hopefully generate some interest.
So let me just run through a couple things about our team. So we're completely student run, wherein all of the members design, simulate, test, and manufacturer a subsystem of the car. We have our own machine shop and garages, and N52-- or sorry, N51-- which is the same building as the MIT Science Museum. And we are the people that drive the car. There's a national competition in the beginning of the summer, and then there are smaller shootout competitions throughout the year. And then we do driver training days to get new members acquainted.
Our build days are on Saturdays from 11 AM to 8 PM. Lunch and dinner are taking care of, from Bertucci's and Beantown respectively. We have a weekly meeting and seminar, which is for course credit. Which is new as of this semester, and it will also be for next semester, so you can cross-reg for that. And then we have designing, shop, and CAD days during the week, whereas members will independently CAD parts, order stock et cetera.
So for electrical engineering at the team we have our tractive, high voltage system, which runs at a nominal 300 volts, which includes motors, motor controllers, and battery packs. Then we have a low voltage system, which runs at 12 volts, which includes controls, CAN nodes, the brain box, and the dashboard. As far CS goes, we do have website maintenance that we need done for events, membership changes, new pictures, and PR material. And then we have code that controls the car for our traction control, launch control, dash control, torque vectoring, and regenerative braking systems, which run typically in MATLAB, Simulink, and LabView.
Tell you a little bit about the car. So it's about 500 pounds. It's rules limited to 85 kilowatts. It has 2 EMRAX 207 motors in the back, one for each rear wheel. It has custom-built battery packs from Prismatic A123 pouch cells, totaling 300 volts and 5.6 kilowatt hours. And it's direct drive with a 2.64 to 1 drive ratio. Here are some pictures we took of it at competition. Here's the back, nose cone, and here are the motors, those big black disks underneath the et mens manus. Here's a slide that I pulled out of our competition scheme. And this is just comparing our car to a couple of commercially available cars, like the KTM XBOW, Ariel Atom, and Caterha M 7-280. If you're familiar with price, power pull weight, dollars per horsepower, dollars per torque, and our car blows them all out of the water. If you have any questions, jot down this email address. Shoot us an email at email@example.com.
We're happy to talk about anything you'd like. Harvard students are kind of the minority on the team. If you have any questions about that please do shoot us an email, happy to talk, and I'm going to head back over to David. Thanks. I appreciate it, guys. [APPLAUSE]
DAVID MALAN: Ansel spent the summer working with us here on campus in CS50 this summer. And in addition to working on things like the binary bulbs, he actually really opened our eyes-- and mine in particular-- to what really the intersection of not of hardware and software can be. In fact a lot of the things he just toured you through are ultimately created first in software, and then ultimately fabricated in the real world in hardware. So if you're interested in exploring that intersection, perhaps take up that group.
Now meanwhile, those of you who are fans of technology, and Apple products in particular know that there were a couple of announcements yesterday. But we thought we'd show you one that came out a few days prior that you might not have seen.
JORGEN EGHAMMER: You know, once in awhile something comes along that changes the way we live. A device so simple and intuitive using it feels almost familiar. Introducing 2015 IKEA catalogue. It's not a digital book or an e-book, it's a book-book.
The first thing to note is no cables, not even a power cable. The 2015 IKEA catalogue comes fully charged, and the battery life is eternal. The interface is 7.5 by 8 inches, but can expand to 15 by 8 inches. The navigation is based on tactile touch technology that you can actually feel.
Content comes pre-installed via 328 high-definition pages of inspiring home furnishing ideas. To start browsing, simply touch and drag. Right to left to move forward, left to right to move backwards.
Notice something else? That's right. No lag. Each crystal clear page loads instantaneously, no matter how fast you scroll. If you want to get a quick overview, just hold it in the palm of your hand, and using just your thumb, speed browse the content.
If you find something you want to save for later, you can simply bookmark it. And even if you close the application, you can easily find the bookmark again. Amazing.
[LAUGHTER] [APPLAUSE] So that brings us to the end of week one. A few announcements now. So sectioning is now in progress. Go to this URL here sometime between now and Friday at noon to actually specify whether you are among those less comfortable, more comfortable, or somewhere in between.
This is typically one of those things that you just kind of know. And in fact those of you who are less comfortable probably know as much, those of you who are more comfortable know as much, and again if you aren't quite sure which of those buckets you fall into you're probably somewhere in between. But rest assured you can swap after a couple of weeks if need be.
Meanwhile, for the coming week we don't start sections per se, but super sections, which are open to all students. This coming Sunday at a location to be announced on the course website we will have one for those less comfortable, as well as one for those more comfortable. And those somewhere in between can choose which of those two, or both if you'd like, to sit-in on. And the focus of those will be ultimately on C, which we'll continue our conversation of today.
Problem set 0 meanwhile is hopefully in your hands. Officially due tomorrow, Thursday, at noon. Unless you cash in one of your 5 late days, which would bring it until Friday at noon. Problem set 1 meanwhile will be posted on the course's website. And this will be our first foray as a class into C. And that problem set spec will walk you through a lot of the mechanics of what we started talking about on Monday, and we'll continue talking about today. C, Linux, the CS50 appliance, all of that will await you in the specification.
Office hours meanwhile are in progress, in the undergraduate dining hall. Head to this URL here to see the schedule for tonight and tomorrow, if you would like to partake. Questions meanwhile, so that you have opportunities to ask questions asynchronously, 24/7, realize you're not limited to sections and office hours, but rather this tool here, CS50 Discuss at that URL will be the course's online bulletin board software, via which you can ask questions of classmates and also staff. So keep in mind that resource as well. Meanwhile a tradition starts this Friday. As you may have glimpsed from last Wednesday's teaser video, we have a tradition most every Friday during term of taking some 50 students and staff to a local restaurant called Fire and Ice, at which we're typically joined by some alumni or friends from industry to generally aspire to make a large class feel smaller. So it's a completely casual lunch. A bunch of us, the staff especially, will play musical chairs and chat with students about 50, life outside of 50, life in the future, the real world, I'm talking about job opportunities with friends in industry.
So if you would like to join us this Friday, head to this URL here. Space is limited, but we'll do this recurringly throughout the term. Head there to cs50.harvard.edu/rsvp. And if you don't get in this time, not to worry. We will do it again in the coming weeks as well.
So this is the picture we painted last week, and you've probably been dabbling in thus far. But let's try to connect this now to what we're going to do today and onward. Could I have one volunteer? All right, or several. How about here on the end, in the blue shirt. Come on up, what's your name? ALANA: Alana. DAVID MALAN: Alana. So Alana, for just a moment-- nice to meet you-- is going to play the role of this function here. The purple block we've called thus far a function. So what I'm going to go ahead here and offer Alana is a little name tag, to make clear what role you're playing.
So you shall be the say block. If you want to go ahead and put that on. And we're going to keep this super simple. If the goal at hand is simply now to implement with Alana, this so-called say block, here's how it's going to work. I have-- let's call it an argument or parameter, it's really just a blank sheet of paper. And it's white to kind of be reminiscent of the white box into which you can write words.
Meanwhile I'm going to go here. I'm going to go ahead and write H-E-L-L-O comma world. And now I, as say the programmer, don't actually know how to say something. I can come up with the words, but I don't necessarily know how to express myself verbally or on the screen. And so what I'm going to do is take this piece of functionality, whose input-- or argument, as we'll call it, I've written on this piece of paper-- and I'm going to outsource it.
And indeed that's the role that functions in a programming language can play. Something like the say block can be outsourced to someone who really knows what she or he is talking about. So if you'll step over here for just a moment, I am going to pass this input to Alana, and ask that you say this input.
ALANA: Hello, world. DAVID MALAN: That's it. So that there is a function. Now we can take it a little more, we can take a step forward here. Because that was clearly underwhelming. So let's now convert this to something a little more sophisticated.
So this of course is our C version. So now if you want to take that one off, that name tag off, and let's have you put on a new name. But fundamentally you're playing the same role, it just so happens to be called printf now.
The story is, of course, going to be-- probably just as underwhelming-- is going to be the following. You are now the function printf. I am the caller, or the programmer, who wants to stand on the shoulders of people in the past like you, who've already figured out how to actually write something down. And so this time, rather than say it let's actually use our screen over here. So if you'd like to step over here, I'm going to pass again this as input to my printf friend. If you could go ahead and print that on the screen, simply by drawing with your finger on the black screen. Excellent. All right, so lots of suspense for how that was going to play out.
So now let's take things up one final notch, if we could, as follows. So this is a C program as we said last time. And this just does what you did, it prints out to the screen, hello, world. Even though there's clearly a lot of distracting stuff up there. But let's take things up a notch and introduce this version, which recall was the third version that we ended up with last time.
And now there's clearly two uses of printf. There's 2 calls to Alana in this case for printf, but there's also a call to another function. What's that function clearly? Getstring.
Can we get one more volunteer? OK, come on up. What's your name?
DAVID MALAN: Javier, come on up. So Javier's role is on this piece of paper. Which I'm going to call generically s. Now this is a variable, it's of type string, as implied by that second line in the middle there. And I'd like you to go get me a string. Specifically head down to the orchestra section and get me the name of someone, and come back with a variable containing that value. It can be anyone you want.
Here we go. All right, Javier is writing down the name. All right. We can all probably guess how this is going to play out. We're perhaps belaboring the point of what a function is doing, but nonetheless thank you very much.
So Javier has returned this string here, which, can't quite see, Jonathan is the string that we've gotten. So now what I'm actually going to provide to Alana though is something a little different. Because in this version of the program, first there's state your name. So the very first argument I need to provide Alana with is going to be literally state your name. All right, so simple as that I would hand this to you. And as I write up the next argument, if you want to go ahead and write this on the board, let's go ahead and do the final example here to make clear what's ultimately got to happen. So state your name, write it toward the top if you don't mind, just so that we have room for one second line. Because the last thing I'm going to now provide you with is not one, but two pieces of paper.
All right. H-E-L-L-O comma and then a blank line. So what I'm about to hand Alana now is something a little different. Not only is she getting this, where fill in the blank represents that percent-- what was the placeholder we've been using? Yeah, so percent s. Meanwhile I'm going to pass her in a second argument, which is precisely what Javier retrieved from Jonathan.
So let me give you these two. If you'd like to, go ahead and print that effect. What's ultimately happening now is, Alana again is playing the role of printf. Javier was playing the role of GetString. So that will be your souvenir. And ultimately what's happening, despite this hello-- yep go ahead and comma. ALANA: Did I receive this yet or no? DAVID MALAN: Yep, you received them both at once. So the idea is that you can now flip the page to handle the second of those two inputs. So this is only to hammer home the point that whereas Alana executed this green line here, and then Javier did this one for us and return to me something we'll call s, but it was really just that piece of paper of his own. And now Alana has done this third line.
And even though all of this looks so incredibly cryptic perhaps at first glance, it really is as simple as that. Passing inputs around, getting outputs, either being physically handed back something, or seeing a side effect like this. Something visually written on the screen. So let's go ahead and thank Alana and Javier, who was down here, for joining us up here.
So now let's take for granted just how straightforward all of that might be. And let's proceed to actually do something in actual code. So up on the screen here is a screenshot of the so-called CS50 appliance. And if you had to at, as a 2:00 PM on Wednesday afternoon, explain to some friend what the CS50 appliance is, how would you define it in a sentence? Any one sentence? Yeah? STUDENT: It's like a program that makes everyone's computer run with the same system. DAVID MALAN: Good! It's a program that enables everyone's computer to run with the same system. It's sort of your own copy of an operating system that happens to be called Ubuntu Linux. And it runs effectively inside of a window on your own Mac or PC, so that this way right out of the gate in week 1, everyone here in the class has access to the same tools, the same configuration, and there's no learning curve specific to a Mac or a PC in particular.
Now we opened up, inside of the CS50 appliance on Monday, this program here. It happens to be called gedit. But that's really just a graphical editor. It's something like Notepad or Text Edit on Windows or Mac OS respectively. And I proposed that there were really three important parts to this screen. The top side is where you would write your code. And that's where we spent much of our three examples in Monday's lecture. The bottom we called what, this black window, yeah?
DAVID MALAN: Compiler we accessed by way of that window. But more generally. Yeah, it was just a terminal window. This is an age old term that just describes essentially a blinking prompt, that years ago used to be on one of those big CRT style monitors. But nowadays it's sort of virtual in software. And the terminal windows let's us type commands. It sort of the simplified version of the user interface or UI. It's not a graphical user interface or GUI, it's a text-based interface or a command line interface.
And indeed that's where ultimately I was able to write some code. Once I had written some code though, recall that I used this command. And as it the name kind of suggests, this allows me to make a program called Hello. But what was it really doing? Well make was taking my input, my source code, and converting it to what, ultimately?
Object code. And object code is just a fancy way of saying zeros and ones. And then once I wanted to run that object code, once I wanted to pass as input those zeros and ones into my computer's brain, the so-called CPU or central processing unit, I had to run the program. But it wasn't quite a simple on Monday as just double clicking some icon. What instead did I have to do in order to run a program?
What was that second command? I'm hearing a little slashes? Yes, yeah?
STUDENT: Dot slash and the program's name. DAVID MALAN: Exactly. Dot slash and the program's name. Now what did this mean? Well dot is just an arcane way of saying current directory. Whatever folder you are in is referenced as, is represented as dot. The slash is just what you've seen in Mac OS and Windows for years, it's a separator between a directory or folder and the rest of some name. In Windows it happens to go backwards, in Linux and Mac OS it happens to go forwards. But it's just the separator, so it's just an uninteresting syntactic detail.
The juicy part of course is the name of the program, Hello. And that's what make created for us. It outputted that file for us. But how did we get to that point? Let's now ask the question, what was really going on here, at least with regard to some of this syntax?
So in an sentence or so, how did we explain away this first line that's highlighted in green? What was that first line doing, with respect to my program? Yeah?
STUDENT: [INAUDIBLE]. DAVID MALAN: Say it again? STUDENT: Including and downloading past functions [INAUDIBLE]. DAVID MALAN: Good. Including, I won't say downloading, but let's say including functions that people have written in the past. And those functions are implemented somewhere in my computer. Someone wrote a file years ago, and that file is somewhere inside of the CS50 appliance, or on my hard drive more generally. And so this line is essentially saying, go find that file, standard I/O dot h, and copy and paste its contents right here on the top of my file so that I don't have to do that manually myself.
And among the juiciest pieces inside of that file we claimed was what function? What function did we say was declared or mentioned in standard I/O dot h most likely? Printf, right? We did not write printf on Monday, it just existed. Much like Alana just came up on stage and she just existed and knew how to draw something on the screen, so does printf exist for many years. And so this is how we access it. Now if we move on here, main was analogous we said to the puzzle piece called when green flag clicked in the world of Scratch. It's just sort of the default name that humans decided would represent the default entry point to a program. The chunk of programming code that gets executed first.
Meanwhile these curly braces are kind of like the curved shape of a lot of those yellow scratch pieces. They kind of encapsulate a whole bunch of instructions together. So it just kind of binds together some related functionality. printf of course is a function that prints the screen, as we just did.
What about these parentheses? How would you define-- even if you've never programmed before, but just based now on an increasing hopefully intuition, what are the parentheses doing for us here? Or what are they surrounding? Yeah?
STUDENT: They're saying what you're going to print with printf.
DAVID MALAN: Yeah, they're saying what you're going to print with printf. Or more generally, they are surrounding the inputs to the function. So you can almost think of those parentheses as being like the metal clip on this clipboard. It's what's holding, it's what's going to be used to provide arguments into the function, which in this case is called printf.
So in general almost any time we call a function, we are going to see a pair parentheses. Maybe with something in it, like now, maybe nothing in it. But that's where you would put the inputs or so-called arguments to a function.
Here's one such argument. I've highlighted everything between the quotes, because it turns out in this language called C, when you want to represent a string-- that is a word or a phrase or even a paragraph-- you have to surround it with double quotes. Not single quotes, double quotes. And that's exactly what I've done here.
Meanwhile there's a funky symbol toward the end there. The backslash n. What did we say that represented? Yeah?
STUDENT: A new line.
DAVID MALAN: New line. Right, you don't generally hit Enter when you want the program to spit out a new line. Rather you tell it explicitly with this admittedly arcane piece of syntax, backslash n, that you want a new line to go there. Finally the semicolon. We didn't really talk too much about this, and by far this will be the bane of some of your existence for the first problem set, when you just failed to realize you've forgotten something as stupid as a semicolon. And generally putting it there will fix that problem. But what's it doing for us, would you say?
DAVID MALAN: Sorry?
STUDENT: [INAUDIBLE]. DAVID MALAN: Finishing a statement. It's sort of like the period at the end of an English sentence, whereas in this language C it's ending a statement. An instruction of programming code that you just want to say, I'm done with this. Now notice that's the only one here. So you don't want to get in a habit of putting semicolons after every closed parenthesis. For instance there's none next to void, and we'll come back in the future to what void means. But in this case your printf is a function, or a statement being used, and so we want to have that terminus at the very end of it.
But these are the kinds of things you're going to immediately learn to see. And indeed these are the things that the CA's and TF's have been sort of trained to see much more quickly than you. And so this is only to say, as you dive into problem set 1 especially, don't get frustrated by this stuff. Once you sort of acclimate to the world, you begin to see things that you might not see at first glance this first week.
So source code is something like that. We want to pass it into the so-called compiler. And that compiler as we said provides output known as object code, the so-called zeros and ones. But from there, what does that give us? Well it gives us these patterns. And again your computer, your Intel inside, understands these patterns of zeros and ones. And sometimes the pattern represents an actual decimal number as we saw last week, sometimes it represents a letter like we saw last week, sometimes it represents an instruction, like printing something to the screen.
So printf for instance-- but rather, let me rewind. We've been taking for granted that those zeros and ones are produced by this command make. But make is not a compiler. Make is not the thing in the middle that's producing the zeros and ones. Rather make is just a very conveniently named program whose purpose in life is essentially to figure out how to compile your program. And we use it in these first weeks because it just saves us a lot of trouble.
But what make is really doing when you compile hello, is, as we said last time, it's looking on your hard drive or in the current folder, for file called what, apparently? Hello.c, right? That's just kind of a convention. It's arbitrary, but that's the way things are. Make, if you just specify the name of a program that doesn't yet exist, it's going to look for the source code in a file, by default means hello.c. And if it finds it, great. It's going to convert that source code into object code for you.
But every time I've hit Enter after running make hello, do you recall seeing last time a fairly long and cryptic sequence of other white letters and characters on the screen? Well that was the actual command, the actual compiler, that was running. So the actual compiler we'll use most of the semester is something called clang. Some of you might have used Visual Studio before, or GCC, or any number of other compilers. We'll use clang.
And clang allows us to actually convert that source code to object code. What does this actually mean in practice? Well let me go into one of my folders from last time. Inside of the CS50 appliance. And let me go ahead and create this same file, include standard I/O dot h. Int main void. And we'll come back in the future as to what int means and what void means. But for now let's do hello world backslash n, just like we did on the board.
Let me save this file called hello.c. And now if I want to compile this I could-- let me zoom in-- run make hello enter. And this again was that very cryptic line. But now at least one word probably jumps out at you. Clang is that line we saw before. Now there's a lot of other stuff frankly that we'll wave our hands at for today. But there's a few subsets, a few characters in here that are of interest. But I'm going to go ahead and do this. I'm going to first run hello, just to prove that this is working as it was Monday. But now I'm going to delete the program. And much like we had these short names last time, the command for removing something is rm, remove, enter. You're going to get some fairly cryptic questions. Hard to believe that you can make even this question hard to understand. But remove regular file hello just means do you want to delete hello.
And I can go ahead and type y for yes, Enter, and now it's gone. What this means now, if I clear my screen, is that instead of doing make hello-- you know what, I'm getting good at this. I'm going to run the compiler myself. I don't need some program to figure out what my file is called. I wrote hello.c, I know what it's called, I'm clearly capable of typing that. So I'm going to go ahead and do clang hello.c Enter.
Seems to work. And there's no additional output, because clang is the compiler. It's what's converting the source code to zeros and ones. So if I now do dot slash hello Enter, hm. New error message today. So bash is just the name of the blinking prompt that we're using. That's a gross oversimplification, but for now that's all that is, it's the blinking prompt. And that's why it's yelling at us.
No such file or directory is a little more straightforward. But surely I made that object code. But the catch is, that if I type the command to list the contents of this directory, which is what? ls for list. There's a bunch of stuff in here, some of which came with the appliance, like my Desktop folder, Downloads folder, Dropbox folder, and all that stuff. But what is interesting is hello.c, which I created a moment ago with gedit. And what's the weirdest looking name in here, perhaps that we didn't see last time at all?
a.out, right? So back in the day, it was just decided that when you compile a program for the first time, and you don't specify the name of a file, let's call it a. And a.out just means this was the output of the compiler. So it's a horrible name for a program. But by that logic, dot slash for current directory, slash a.out, should mean there's in fact my hello world program. Now a little warm up exercise, too. If I want to rename this file, turns out that you move a file from one name to another. So mv a.out, and then I can call it hello Enter. So this is a Linux command. DOS had this years ago, Windows has a terminal window of some sort that looks like this, Linux and Mac computers have this blinking prompt. Even though most of us probably rarely, if ever, use it.
But what I've done is run a program, whose name is mv, and I've provided it with two arguments, so to speak. Two inputs. a.out is the original name. Hello is the new name. So if I now do dot slash hello, Enter, that exists. And if I do dot slash a.out, what do you expect I should see?
Bash, no such file or directory. Because I just renamed it. So this takes a bit of getting used to. But the problem set 1 specification will truly hold your hand through some of this minutae. Because this is a complete intellectual distraction from the more interesting ideas at hand, which is actually creating something out of code. But let's do one modification now to this program.
Recall that last time I did something like this, printf state your name. And indeed we just did this on the big screen over there. And then I did string s gets GetString open paren, close paren. And paren just shorthand notation for parenthesis. So does GetString take any arguments? No inputs no, but it needs the parentheses, because that's what demarcates the calling of a function.
So I'm going to go ahead and try to run the compiler on this program now. Clang hello.c, because I didn't change its name for now. And I got a bunch of errors. Let's zoom out here. If I scroll up again, like I said last time, to the first, same error that I got last time. On line 6 of hello.c I had an undeclared identifier string, did I mean standard in? I didn't. Because what mistake have I made in this program, if you recall from last time? Yeah, we need the so-called training wheels that we'll just use for a few weeks. But I need to specify that also, somewhere inside of the appliance, is a file that we wrote just a few years ago. Inside of which are functions like apparently GetString. So now if I go back down here, zoom in, and re-run clang hello.c. Damn, another error. But we haven't seen this one before.
This one's a little more esoteric to figure out. But this is deliberately on the screen, because we wanted to tell this story. When you compile hello.c, just as the picture from before suggested, you're only converting that source code to zeros and ones. Now CS50 staff a few years ago wrote CS50.h, and a corresponding file, CS50.c. And we, a few years ago, compiled those files into a file that happens to be called CS50.o.
Or it can be renamed a few different things. But that's a simple way of thinking about it. So we compiled CS50's library into zeros and ones. But nowhere have I specified that I want to combine my zeroes and ones for my hello world program with the zeros and ones that CS50 staff created a few years ago into one complete program. All I've specified by writing clang hello.c is compile hello.c.
I've not told clang to link in the zeros and ones that CS50 staff created for you some time ago. So it's an easy fix, dash l for link, CS50. And we'll again see this before long again and again. But notice now there was no complaints. So now if I run dot slash hello, now it's working. Although that's a bit misleading since I just recreated what file? a.out.
So let me rewind for just a moment. The program we just compiled has the three lines of code. When I ran hello world, hello a moment ago, I didn't see state your name. And that's because I ran the old version of the program. But if I do indeed run dot slash a.out Enter, state your name, Rob, hello, world. Hm. That's kind of a bug. Probably meant to say Rob, right? So what's the fix here in code. STUDENT: [INAUDIBLE]. DAVID MALAN: Exactly. So I just need to make that final tweak so that I'm passing in a placeholder, like a fill in the blank, like we did a moment ago. But percent s is now that fill in the blank. So lastly let's reveal one last detail so that there's no magic. I'm going to go ahead and get rid of hellow. I'm going to go ahead and get rid of a.out. So now I have no programs, just my source code. And I'm going to run a slightly longer command, clang dash o hello hello.c dash LCS50.
Now this is starting to sort of go in one ear and out the other perhaps. But just tease apart what this is doing. Clang is the compiler, dash LCS50 deliberately at the very end does what in a sentence? Links to the CS50 library. Grabs the zeros and ones that the staff made and crams them into my own program. So the last question at hand is, what is dash o hello probably doing, even if you've never seen this syntax before?
Outputting a program that's not named the default a.out. Rather it's named hello. So now there is no a.out. No such file or directory, because I explicitly said call this program hello, so that I can now type in a name like that and have it behave.
Now frankly, boy is that uninteresting to have to remember all of that little minutia, right? So let's go ahead and get rid of hello again. And let's now return to a world in which it suffices to say make hello. But that's the magic that make is doing for you, that's the tedium that it's doing for you. And as our programs and problems get more complex, make will truly be your friend. Because not too long from now we're going to have programs that are written not with one file, but several files, and make will automate the process of compiling all of that for us together.
So now print. printf is inside of this file, standard I/O dot h, that we've seen before, but there's more to printf than that. There's backslash n, but there's also a bunch of other escape sequences. And escape sequence is just a fancy way of saying something that starts with a backslash, not a forward slash, a backslash, and does some special thing. And we won't dwell on most of these, but why is there backslash double quote, do you think? Why is there this weird sequence of characters, backslash double quote, why might that be useful? STUDENT: [INAUDIBLE]. DAVID MALAN: Exactly, right? Think back to our hello world program that we've seen quite a few times now, every time we've seen that hello world program we've had double quotes inside of which is hello comma world backslash n. But think to yourself, what if you actually wanted to print out a quotation mark? Your first instinct might be, I don't know why I might want to do-- here, we can be a little passive aggressive, hello friend. We might want to do something like that.
But why is this now problematic? Ignoring the curly quotes aside that keynote made for us automatically. Why is this problematic?
Exactly. Because we have like 4 quotation marks. Well the first one probably goes with the second one, and maybe the fourth one goes with the third one, or, I mean I'm not even sure, nor is the computer going to be. Computers again, compilers again, are fairly dumb. They'll only do what you tell them to do. And if you're not unambiguous they are probably going to throw an error.
If you're not unambiguous as to how to make a peanut butter and jelly sandwich strange things might arrive. It's the same idea. Now suffice it to say there's some other escape sequences, but we'll come to those before long. Essentially these escape sequences represent something that you might not be able too easily at the keyboard, without confusing the computer.
Now meanwhile we have placeholders in printf. Percent d, which can also be written in almost all cases as percent i, is a placeholder for what type of data? What type of value? A decimal number. So actually we'll start using percent i because it's a little simpler, like an integer. Percent i. An integer that happens to be decimal.
Percent s we already said was a placeholder for a string. Which is just a word, a phrase, a paragraph, an essay, whatever. It's a sequence of characters of some length. And we'll see before long some of these others. But percent c is for a single character. Percent f is for a floating point number, like a real number that has a decimal point in it, which is of course not an integer. And there's a whole bunch of others as well.
Meanwhile in C, and in a lot of languages, we have different data types. Different types of glass bowls if you will. The bowl I used last time was for ping pong balls, but we can also store different values like chars and strings and integers in a container, like a variable, and C has these. Char is the type of data, the type of variable, in which you can store a character. Float is a type of variable in which you can store a real number.
Int is of course for an int. And rather ridiculously named a long long is where you can store essentially a really long number, with even more digits then a typical int might store. But we'll come back to that before long.
In CS50 dot h meanwhile the other header file that we've seen a couple times in use, there's two other data types that don't exist in C typically. One is string, and we'll see in a few weeks what strings really are underneath the hood. And one is bool. And a bool is a variable that can only take on certain values. And just based on last week's explanation of Scratch, and more recently C, what would you guess are the two possible values for some container that is of type bool?
Yes and no. One and zero. True or false. And indeed it's the last that tends to be conventional in a programming language, saying something like true or false.
Meanwhile the CS50 library comes with a bunch of functionality that the staff wrote for you, besides just getting a string. We wrote in advance functions that can get an integer from the user, get a single character, get a float, that is just a number with the decimal point. Get a long long, a really big value from the user. So we've only seen this in action in the form of GetString. But via these functions will soon be able to write programs that get input from the user.
Meanwhile consider this program, and consider how we might now start to add to it with new constructs. A quick whirlwind tour and then we'll look at some writing some programs manually ourselves. Henceforth if we want to implement a condition, it's not going to look like a nice little pretty puzzle piece. It's going to look a little more arcane. But this is the canonical structure of a condition in C.
The word if, two parentheses, inside of which is going to be some kind of Boolean expression. Now the slash slash in the middle, this is at the moment sort of like pseudocode code placeholder. But more properly, any line of code in C that starts with slash slash is a comment.
It's like a sticky note that you might put on an essay, printed on paper. It's a note to yourself. It has no functional impact on the program. It's sort of a reminder, it's your own documentation as to what's going on. So do this at the moment is sort of a placeholder for whatever's inside of those curly braces eventually is going to do something.
Meanwhile you have two forks in the road, an if else construct like this. You can if, elseif, else. Now it's worth noting, especially if you've been Googling around online for resources out of curiosity, or if you pick up one of the course's recommended books on C, you will see that humans have lots of different preferences for how to express themselves in code. Some people like to put the curly braces as I've done here. Some people like to put the curly braces for instance up here.
Some people like to put the elses up here and then this over here. There's any number of ways to write code, and none of them are right per se. Although there's a few that are pretty wrong. But there are no-- if this is ultimately a very religious debate. In fact, one of the most annoying things about computer science is how opinionated computer scientists can be. And you will find over time that even you develop personal preferences as to how your code should look.
Not just behave, not just create output, but how it should look aesthetically. So what we will do is guide you along the way toward, for now at least, a standard CS50 style that at least keeps things uniform and easy to read. But more on those distinctions before long.
A Boolean expression in C, if you wanted to say if this condition is true and this other condition is true, you don't write the word and, as you would in English. You instead use ampersand ampersand, for reasons we'll come back to. If you want to say or you use two vertical bars, which on a US keyboard is generally above the Enter key next to the backslash. And this just means if this condition or this other condition is true do this.
Meanwhile there's this crazy thing, which you'll have occasion to use once in awhile. But it's just an alternative way to express yourself. This, for now, let's stipulate, it's just another funky way of expressing if, elseif, elseif, elseif, elseif. It's just formatted in terms of cases, where you literally enumerate the values that you might want to check for.
Meanwhile loops. We saw a comparison of Scratch with a loop. And I'm going to wave my hand at what each of these things means. But notice that a loop will very often start with the keyword for. Or it will start with the keyword while. Or it will start with the keyword do, and end with the keyword while.
But what we're about to see is things more like this. Here is, in general in C, how you might declare a variable and give it a value. In C it doesn't suffice, like in Scratch, you just say give me a variable called something. You have to tell C, and tell your compiler, more specifically, what type of value do you want to put in the glass bowl.
Is it an integer? If so, you have to literally say int and then the name of the variable, then a semicolon. If you instead wanted string and called it s like I did my code here today, you would say string s semicolon. Once you want to give it a value you can then use the equal sign, otherwise known as the assignment operator. And notice how each of these lines of code has the semicolon at the end of it.
But frankly this just looks a little ugly. Why can't I say to the computer, give me a variable and initialize it to zero. That is, give me an empty glass bowl. While you can. And so one of the judgment calls you'll have to make stylistically over time is, do you write your code like this, or do you kind of clean it up and impress people by writing two lines as just one. And this would be considered generally a more elegant way of writing your code stylistically.
Functions we're of course seen. They're going to take this format. The name of a function, some parentheses, and then maybe some stuff inside. Or you might see uses of multiple functions side by side, like something like this. Now as a tangent, does this joke now make sense?
[LAUGHTER] It doesn't mean it's funny, but it does perhaps make a little more sense. So now let's go into the CS50 appliance for a moment. And let me open up one teaser here.
And indeed one of the reasons for introducing IKEA catalog and flashing the picture of the iPhone a bit ago was to actually tie in together the fact that just a few years ago, in 2007, this piece of code was released, which was one of the very first implementation of a piece of software that does what's called jailbreaking. For those unfamiliar, jailbreaking something like a phone or an iPhone means essentially figuring out how to do things with it that the company who made it didn't intend. Like you want to install certain software that's not in the app store, jailbreaking your phone which you do things like that and more. But what was fun in 2007-- and there's been dozens of different versions of these things since then, in all sorts of languages-- is that this program here, called iUnlock, was actually written in C. And so I pulled up the source code for this, just to kind of show you some of the similarities with the constructs we've been discussing thus far. Now there's way more complexity here than we've seen already in class. Let me scroll up just a little bit here.
But notice these-- well we notice a few things-- but notice these lines here, including standard I/O dot h. And all-- line 24, please-- notice standard I/O dot h and a whole bunch of other files that apparently other people have written. And if we scroll down through this, little arbitrarily, notice I don't know how to write all of this myself necessarily yet, but there's if. So apparently this has a branch.
And if I scroll down a little further there's another if. If I scroll up, I think around line 100 I saw for. So I'm not quite sure how this works yet, but this is a for loop that's going to let me iterate some number of times. And if I scroll all the way to the bottom I see that there's a function down here called main, and some additional credits for your reading pleasure.
So this is only to say-- and we'll put this online among the course's source code today-- that even some of these devices that we take for granted, at the end of the day you're still using these basic constructs that we've been introducing already thus far. That's enough of that one. All right, so now let's actually build something.
Let's go beyond something like hello.c, and open up this, let's write this program here. I'm going to go ahead and write a program called adder.c, whose purpose in life is going to be like my first super simple calculator that just adds a couple of numbers. Not because that's a hard problem, but because it allows me to now tie together a few things. So I'm going to go ahead and include standard I/O dot h and CS50 dot h. I'm going to say int main void. And again in the future we'll come back to it into in this context and void means.
And now I'm going to say something like printf, give me an integer. And now on my second line, how do I express myself such that I want to declare a variable that's going to store an int? Literally what do I type if I want to create a variable that stores an int would you say? int a equals getint. Sure, so that works. And just for consistency with the code you'll see online, let me change this to x, just because x is a common variable name to use, at least in algebra. Now let me go ahead and do printf again. Give me another integer. And now I'm going to kind of learn from that pattern, I'm going to say int y gets to GetInt.
And we've not used GetInt before, but just like GetString goes and gets a string, like Javier did from the audience, similarly does GetInt start blinking the prompt. And effectively waiting for the user to give it an integer, by typing it in and hitting Enter. Now lastly I'm going to do this, printf the sum of-- and let me get fancy now-- percent i and percent i is present i exclamation point backslash n. And what do you think I'm going to put in now as the additional inputs to printf?
I don't want to say literally quote unquote x. I want to class in x and then, and now let's get fancy and let's just assume we can do what we want. What you want to say next? x plus y. And indeed that will work. It's minimally programming languages do understand basic arithmetic, and so this should in fact work.
So let me go ahead and do make adder in my black and white window down here, Enter. Cryptic line but no error message, so that's good. Dot slash adder, give me an integer, 1. Give me another integer, 2. The sum of 1 and 2 is 3.
All right, so a pretty trivial program, but what's it done? It's allowed me to use a function call here, call another function here, two calls to GetInt, a third call to printf, and then using these placeholders. So it's a little more sophisticated than last time. But what if I want to get a little fancier?
Let me go ahead and now do this. Let me go ahead and create a new file called conditions zero. And I'm going to save some time for classes sake and just paste in that code as a starting point. And now I'm just going to put something new here in the middle. So printf I'd like an integer please. And all this code is available on the course's website, you needn't type it all out in class if you'd rather not. int, and now I'm going to use, instead of x and y, I'm going to use n, which is probably the most common name for an integer in a computer program. And now I want to do a little judgment here. I'm going to see if n is greater than 0, then I'm going to say printf-- whoops, printf-- you picked a positive number, exclamation point backslash n. Close that. Else I'm going to print out printf you picked a negative number.
Now before you yell at me, let's run this program. Let me go down here. And how do I compile a program called conditions dash 0? Make conditions dash 0. Kind of a stupid name, but-- dammit. OK, good teaching moment. Why did that break?
What did I accidentally call this file? You can kind of infer from the tab up here. So it's not bad that I did this, because this will happen perhaps to some of you. So I accidentally named my source code condition 0. But my source code by convention should be in a file called condition 0 dash c, or whatever dot c.
So let me fix this. Just like Microsoft Word I can go up to Save As and do condition 0 dot c. Now just to be tidy I'm going to go ahead and remove condition 0, which was my old version. And now let's do make condition 0, Enter. OK, seems good.
Condition 0, Enter. I'd like an integer please, 50, you picked a positive number. Now how about negative 50? You picked a negative number. How about now, 0. Pretty sure 0's not negative.
So this is kind of a logical bug. How do I fix this? Else if n is less than 0, do this, else we can have a three way branch here, printf you picked 0. So now if I rerun this program, after compiling it again with make, and now rerun condition 0, what I'll see here is 0 gives me that output. So where are we going with this?
Well it's very easy to lose sight of the forest for the trees. And so allow us to conclude with this 2 and 1/2 minute video that ultimately is a bit of an ad from Google, but that really is testament to what even using these basic building blocks we can ultimately do once we have a bit of programming savvy under our belts.
SAROO BRIERLEY (VOICEOVER): It was 26 years ago, and I was just about to turn 5. We got to the train station and we boarded our train together. My brother just said I'll stay here, and I'll come back. And I just thought, well you know, I might as well just go to sleep and he'll just wake me up. And when I woke up the next day, the whole carriage was empty on a runaway train, a ghost train taking me I don't know where.
I was adopted out to Australia, to an Australian family. And mom had decorated my room with the map of India, which she put next to my bedside. I woke up every morning seeing that map, and hence it sort of kept the memories alive. People would say, you're trying to find a needle in a haystack, Saroo you'll never find it.
I'd have flashed of the places that I used to go, the flashes of my family faces. There was the image of my mother, sitting down with her legs crossed, just watching her cry. Life is just so hard. That was my treasure. And I was looking at Google Map and realized there's Google Earth as well. In a world where you could zoom into, I started to have all of these thoughts and what possibilities that this could do for me. I said to myself, you know, you've got all those photographic memories and landmarks where you're from, and you know what the town looks like. This could be an application that you can use to find your way back.
I thought, well I'll put a dot on Calcutta train station, and a radius line, you know, that you should be searching around this area. I sort of came across these train tracks. And I started following it, and I came to a train station which reflected the same image that was in my memories. Everything matched. I just thought yep, I know where I'm going. I'm just going to let the map that I have in my head lead me and take me back to my hometown.
I came to the doorstep of the house that I was born. And walked around about 15 meters around the corner, there was three ladies standing outside, adjacent to each other. And the middle one stepped forward, and I just thought, this is your mother. She came forward, she hugged me, and we were there for about five minutes.
She grabbed my hand and she took me to the house and got on the phone, where she rang my sister and my brother to say that, you know, your brother has just all of sudden appeared like a ghost. And then the family was reunited again. Everything's all good, I helped my mother out, she doesn't have to be slaving away. She can live the rest of her life in peace.
It was a needle in a haystack, but the needle was there. Everything's there. Everything we have in the world is at the tap of a button. But you've got to have the will and the determination to wanting it.
[MUSIC PLAYING] DAVID MALAN: Wonderfully sweet testimonial to just what you can now do with technology. We will see you next week.